How do we receive Ramadan? Part 1
Friday, June 29, 2012
He does not find fasting hard and harmful. In this case he should fast because he has no excuse.
He finds fasting hard but not harmful. In this case fasting is not recommended for him, because it is better than he makes use of Allah’s permission or concession (rukhsah) since fasting would be hard for him.
Fasting would be harmful to him. In this case it is prohibited (haram) because Allah has said, “nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for Allah hath been to you most merciful” and said: “make not your hands contribute to your destruction.” In a hadith the prophet Muhammed (SAW) says: “no harm (to yourselves) nor harming (others).” Reported by Ibn Majah and Haakim. An Nawawi sais that there are other similar reports, which strengthen each other. The harm of fasting to a sick person can be as certain by the sick person himself or by a trusted doctor.
So, if a sick person in this category breaks his fast, he must fast for the number of days that he missed, once he has recovered. But if he dies before being cured, then the obligation falls away since he was expected to make up for the missed days on other day, which he did nor live to see. As for travellers there are two types: one who seeks to avoid fasting by his travel. This is not allowed to him because deception to avoid an obligatory duty of Allah does not eliminate it. As for the second type, (the true traveller), there are three groups:
The traveller who suffers extreme hardship. In such a case fasting is harm (forbidden) because prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was fasting during the victory campaign (fat-hi makkah) the opening of Makkah, when he learnt that some people with him were doing exactly as he was doing, he drank a cup of water after the Asr Salah as people were looking at him. He was then told that some people were still fasting. He then said: “those are the disobedient ones.” Narrated by Muslim.
This type of traveller finds fasting hard but not excessively so. It is preferable that such a traveler should not fast because he would by fasting be rejecting Allah’s concession and would also be bringing hardship and suffering to himself.
traveller does not find fasting hard. Such a traveller should do whichever is
easier for him (i.e. he chooses between fasting and not fasting) because Allah
intends every facility for you, He does not want to put you to difficulties.
The intention in this context means, “likes”, if fasting and not fasting are
equivalent for such as traveller than fasting is preferable because this was
what prophet Muhammed (PBUH) did.
In Saheeh Muslim (book of hadith), it is
reported that Abu Darda (may Allah be pleased with him) said that: we were
travelling with the prophet (peace be upon him) in Ramadan in such hot
conditions that we used to put our hands on our heads as protection from the
sun and the only fasting persons among us were the messenger of Allah (peace be
upon him) and Abdullah Ibn Rawah.
The traveller is considered to be on a
journey from the moment he leaves him town until he returns to it, even if he
stays in the town of destination for a period of time, as long as he intends
not to stay there after he finishes the purpose for which he travelled. In this
case he makes used of the concessions allowable to the traveller even if this
stay extends for a long time because no specification was reported by prophet
Muhammed (peace be upon him) for the period of time involved in the journey.
The basic stipulation is that the rules pertaining to the journey undertaken by
a fasting person remain valid until there is evidence that the rules relating
to it do not apply any longer. There is no distinction between journeys (with
attached concessions) which are incidental such as those for Hajj or Umra or
visiting a relative for trade etc, and those continuous journeys such as those
made by taxi or truck drivers such drivers are considered travellers from the
moment they leave their home town.
They can enjoy all the concessions allowable
to other travellers such as those not fasting in Ramadan, shortening of the
four-rakaa prayer, the combining of two prayers together when necessary (one
immediately after the other) such as Dhuhr and Asr or Maghrib and Isha. Not
fasting is preferred for such persons if it is the easier option and they make
up for it by fasting in winter. This is so because such drivers belong to a
specific town, and once they are in their towns, they are considered, as
residents are applicable to them.
When they are on journeys then they are
considered travellers and the rules applying to travellers are then applicable
to them. There are seven things which invalidate (nullify), the fast: 1) sexual
intercourse, his fast is invalidated if he is one of the persons who are
required to fast and intercourse occurred during the day time, then atonement
will be imposed on him. In such a case atonement is one of the following things
respectively: the first of those is the freeing of a slave: if that is not
possible then he should fast two months without interruption.
If he cannot do
this, then he should feed sixty poor persons. But if the fasting person is not
one of those who must fast (e.g. a traveller) and he made intercourse, then
fulfillment (qadhaa – meaning fasting at a later period is required) and no
atonement (kaffarah) is applicable to him. 2) Ejaculation of sperm by touching
or kissing or hugging. Kissing without ejaculation does not break the fast. 3)
The intake of any kind of food or drink, which reaches the body. It is
prohibited for the fasting person to inhale fumes of frankincense in a way that
it reaches the stomach.
Smelling of perfumes is allowed. 4) Everything, which is considered eating or drinking, for example any injection that has nourishment and works like food. Otherwise such injections are allowed during fasting. 5) Taking out blood by scarification or by opening a vein when this causes weakness of the body. 6) Vomiting intentionally. 7) Appearance of menstruation (monthly periods) or blood after delivery for women. The effect of the above seven things are subject to the following three conditions.
The fasting person should be aware of the rule and the time. Therefore, if a fasting person sacrifices while fasting believing that this does not break his fasting, his fast will not be broken, because he does not know the rule. In the same way, if the fasting person takes food after dawn, but he believes that it is not dawn yet, his fast will not be broken because he does not know the correct time.
If a fasting person eats food forgetting that he is fasting, his fast will not be broken.
Author: Muhammed Lamin Ceesay